I was a little surprised at the recent Handheld Learning Conference that there were so many references to the old Pedagogy versus Technology debate. This was very much the debate we had back in the 1980s when we first started introducing technology into schools, so why is this debate still going. It could be argued, as some have, that we did not learn the lesson back thenand so still need to have the debate but I feel it is more than that. I feel that many teachers are ‘uneasy’ about the technology in the classroom, possibly because they do not use it much themselves or do not feel in control of it. For such people, the pedagogy must come first and the technology should be used only where it supports or enhances the pedagogy. I have some sympathy with this view but I am concerned that this view would only strengthen current and past pedagogic practices and could become a barrier to modern, future or transformed learning. There is also an underlying dichotomy in that technology changes rapidly whereas the world of education seems to change only slowly. For many even the slow change of education is too much to cope with; this is especially true where one change takes time to embed and become accepted practice just as the next change is announced. This cycle of educational change has dogged the education system in England for the last decade or two to such an extent that teachers find it hard to keep up with the changes and sometimes have no exposure or idea of the latest pedagogic practice. With all the occuring and reoccurring changes in pedagogy, how can we even expect teachers to incorporate technology into their practice? The pedagogy versus technology argument seems to be emplyed mainly by those who advocate that the pedagogy should take precedence. They have a very powerful and persuasive case. It can also be used by those who are not willing to change their approach to pedagogy and use this as a block to technological innovation in learning. Even those of us who love and advocate the use and development of technology in learning, may often feel guilty if we stop and think that we are promoting the technology more than the pedagogy. Looking back through the history of educational technology, there have always been times when technology has led the way and introduced new ideas and concepts into learning. In the 1980s, the biggest factor in the development of educational technology is that the overwhelming majority of schools had standardised on the BBC micro. We had a standard of technology that allowed for a robust market for teachers, enthusiasts and software companies to promote new ideas. Compare that to the 1990s when we had a split between Archimedes/Acorn and PC technologies; educational software innovation stagnated. In some ways, I feel that those who advocate the importance of the pedagogy over the technology are overlooking the significance of the technology. What I’d like to say to any teacher is that if you find that a piece of technology (hardware or software) enables you to teach better, to reach pupils who may be hard to reach, to provide new and stimulating resources for learning, engage pupils better, etc., then do not feel guilty about it. In short, perhaps the debate is not really pedagogy versus technology but is more an interaction of pedagogy and technology where each contributes and influences the other.